1) In my opinion, the most important thing a graphic designer should know is how to manipulate text and concepts to work for a specific audience.
2) The rule of thirds definitely applies to this design. It is separated by the white animal, then triangle, and the rainbow animals. The structure runs from left to right (flow really.) Your eye goes to the white animal, to the empty triangle, to tall the colors the direct you to the edges of the paper.
3) Graphic design is always evolving, just like traditional art is always evolving. I believe typography is more involved in graphic design than it was a few years ago.
4) I think this design is more of a parody design on Pokemon and Pink Floyd. I love the “magical” feel that they give this design. I like how they used the Pokemon in this way.